Questa congiuntiva certamente si collega a pharus, ma per la sua condizione di copulativa, deve riguardare tutto un altro sostantivo, non un vero e proprio circumloquio aggettivale inter pauca ecc. Rimane forte il sospetto che una corruttela testuale dei primi codici abbia storpiato in inter pauca la parola interpanna cioè, un sistema di grandi pannelli figurati a rilievo, fra lesene di separazione. In tal caso, l et risulta perfettamente comprensibile: La Torre de Hércules.
El Faro Romano de La Coruña. Cet exemple d un commerce, qui a laissé une masse de plus en plus volumineuse de témoins et qui est aujourd hui bien connu 1, atteste l importance primordiale de la voie d eau dans les relations économiques des provinces occidentales de l Empire et dans l essor de celles-ci, dès la première moitié du I er siècle ap. Toutefois, ces transports par bateaux, même s ils étaient possibles sur un très grand nombre de fleuves et sur toutes les mers occidentales, ne pouvaient suffire.
Pour le déplacement des personnes, pour le transport des produits de grande valeur, pour les relations avec les régions dépourvues de cours d eau navigable, enfin pour les périodes pendant lesquelles les voies d eau étaient impraticables, le chemin et la route sont toujours restés indispensables. Aussi le tableau de ces différents moyens de transport avec, successivement, une étude de chacun d eux, ne doit pas masquer leur complémentarité.
Celle-ci apparaît très clairement à travers un certain nombre d exemples, que nous prenons surtout dans la province d Aquitaine. Pourtant, sans parler des relations bien attestées entre l île de Bretagne et la Gaule et la péninsule Ibérique dès l âge du Bronze et pendant toute la Protohistoire 2, les témoignages sont nombreux d un important commerce maritime pendant toute l époque romaine et l Antiquité tardive.
Quelques documents littéraires et épigraphiques On dispose, à ce propos, d un certain nombre de textes d auteurs anciens qui sont parfaitement explicites. Il suffira d en citer trois, qui sont les plus clairs parmi ceux qu a rassemblés M. Strabon, Géographie, IV, 5, 2: Voilà l attestation la plus nette et la plus précise des navigations atlantiques au I er siècle ap. La relative pauvreté des vestiges archéologiques recueillis jusqu à ce jour, notamment des épaves comme on le verra plus loin, n autorise aucunement à la mettre en doute.
La même information est donnée pour le IV e siècle par Martianus Capella. Les plus intéressants ont été découverts à Bordeaux et concernent des étrangers, originaires de pays riverains des mers occidentales. Deux de ceux-ci, Solimarius et Lunaris, ont laissé des témoignages qui illustrent exactement à notre propos. Ce personnage avait donc des activités commerciales dans au moins trois régions riveraines de la Mer Extérieure.
Aussi devait-il, très probablement, transporter ses marchandises par voie maritime, le long des côtes de l Atlantique, de la Manche et de la Mer du Nord. L analyse pétrographique du monument ayant montré qu il a été taillé dans du grés rose provenant d York, on peut penser que le bloc avait été apporté à cette fin.
Assurément, le voyage que redoutait cet important commerçant et pour lequel il avait imploré la protection divine, pour lui-même et sans doute ses marchandises, était la traversée entre York et Bordeaux. L océan Atlantique et ses dangers Si on a si longtemps douté de l importance de ces navigations atlantiques, c est évidemment en raison des périls que devaient affronter les marins de ces contrées et qui effrayaient les Méditerranéens, nos principaux informateurs.
On ne songeait pas que les marins de ces contrées occidentales prenaient un certain nombre de précautions afin d affronter ces risques et de les réduire. En effet, les conditions climatiques de l Atlantique sont très différentes de celles de la Méditerranée.
Les tempêtes y sont généralement beaucoup plus violentes, en particulier dans le Golfe de Gascogne. Surtout, celles-ci peuvent se déclencher à toute époque de l année, même en plein milieu de l été. Sans doute, habituellement, l anticyclone des Açores progresse vers le Nord à partir du mois de mai et assure alors un temps relativement calme. Mais cette situation n est pas stable: C est ce danger des tempêtes estivales qui constitue la principale différence entre les conditions de navigation en Méditerranée et sur l Atlantique.
Face à ces périls, qu ils affrontaient depuis longtemps et qu ils avaient appris à bien connaître, les marins de l Atlantique et des mers septentrionales avaient assurément adopté un certain nombre de mesures de prudence, qui leur permettaient de naviguer sur toutes leurs eaux. La plupart de ces précautions visaient à diminuer le principal danger, celui de la tempête subite: Les solutions étaient simples: En conséquence, un capitaine prudent restait à faible distance des côtes.
Il s en écartait seulement un peu pour éviter les pièges des rochers et des bancs de sable. La navigation atlantique était donc un cabotage, même si on ne peut exclure quelques traversées hauturières, en profitant de quelques journées de grand calme.
Les côtes atlantiques devaient aussi être pourvues d un grand nombre de ports. Une répartition régulière, de l ordre d un havre tous les dix à quinze kilomètres, était sans doute souhaitable. La plupart des rivages atlantiques, généralement assez découpés, le permettaient, à l exception, pensera-ton, du littoral landais, en ne considérant que sa configuration actuelle: Enfin, il était plus sûr de ne naviguer que de jour, afin de mieux observer le ciel et de prévoir, le plus tôt possible, les changements de temps.
Aussi, à la différence des navigations estivales en Méditerranée, qui étaient communément nycthémérales, c est-à-dire qui s effectuaient en traversée directe sans escale nocturne, il est très probable que les marins de l Atlantique relâchaient tous les soirs dans un port.
Certes, cette mesure de prudence allongeait la durée des voyages, mais dans des proportions encore convenables, puisque, en été, les journées sont d une quinzaine d heures. Et ceci pour trois raisons: Les navires Les bateaux, qui naviguaient sur l Atlantique, la Manche et la Mer du Nord à l époque romaine, sont encore très mal connus, en raison de la pauvreté de la documentation littéraire ou iconographique, aggravée par la grande rareté des épaves reconnues et fouillées à ce jour.
Bien qu il ait été maintes fois commenté, le passage de César sur les navires des Vénètes César, La Guerre des Gaules, III, , ne peut assurément être passé sous silence, car il atteste l inventivité des populations littorales pour faire face aux particularités du milieu océanique: On peut penser que ces spécificités des embarcations vénètes, qui, comme le montre très clairement le général romain, répondaient aux conditions de navigation sur l océan et dans les estuaires, furent conservées sur de nombreux navires de l époque romaine.
C est ce que paraissent indiquer quelques rares découvertes archéologiques. L embarcation, découverte dans la basse Charente, en aval de Saintes, devait avoir une capacité de charge d une dizaine de tonnes, avec une longueur d une quinzaine de m et une largeur de 4,80 m, était dotée d un pont à l avant et à l arrière, d une étrave et d un étambot: Sans doute cette embarcation est-elle datée du Haut Moyen Âge, mais plusieurs épaves de la Tamise, celles du II e siècle notamment Mardsen et , sont du même genre, ou encore le bateau de Bruges, daté également du II e siècle Mardsen Les autres embarcations, plus ou moins sûrement reconnues en Aquitaine, ont été trouvées par hasard et généralement détruites dès ce moment-là, comme le navire de Cadaujac, qui sombra en et dont on n a été recueilli que les monnaies et quelques morceaux de bois Étienne et Rachet Leur tonnage La capacité de transport de ces bateaux de l Atlantique était assurément inférieure à celle des gros bâtiments de la Méditerranée, de ces myriophoroi qui pouvaient atteindre t de port en lourd Pomey et Tchernia et dont l épave de Giens est un bon exemplaire, avec ses 40 m de long, 9 m de large et sa cale de 4,50 m de hauteur.
Ceux que l on a pu examiner récemment, en particulier les épaves de la Tamise et de Port-Bertaud 2, étaient nettement plus petits et de plus faible tirant d eau, en raison de la pratique généralisée de la navigation à la fois en mer et dans les estuaires.
Mais leur tonnage était de l ordre de plusieurs dizaines de tonneaux, avec un port en lourd de 10 à 50 tonnes selon les cas. La capacité de transport de ces embarcations était donc très supérieure à celle des chariots, même si on considère que ceux-ci portaient des charges souvent supérieures aux livres indiquées dans l Édit du Maximum Raepsaet , , Molin et qui pouvaient vraisemblablement atteindre la tonne pour les grosses charrettes tirées par des boeufs.
Leur vitesse Le bateau était aussi bien plus rapide que le chariot de transport de marchandises. Les informations précises manquent pour les navigations antiques dans l Atlantique. César traversa la Manche avec son armée en environ 6 heures. Il est aussi rapporté qu un navire chargé de blé aurait fait le voyage entre l Egypte et l Angleterre en 20 jours Léonce de Naples, Vie de Saint Jean l Aumônier, d après Rougé , , durée tellement courte qu elle doit correspondre à un impressionnant record, puisque c est le temps que.
Indiquons plutôt quelques exemples parfaitement sûrs, pris dans la longue série établie par J. Bernard pour la fin du Moyen Âge et le début de l Époque Moderne: Rappelons enfin, grâce à un passage bien connu d Ausone Lettres, V, , le grand intérêt de l utilisation de la marée dans les estuaires, aussi bien du flux que du reflux: Cette possibilité d utiliser le flot de la marée est la particularité et le très grand avantage qu offre le littoral atlantique, grâce à ses estuaires et à ses rias.
Par ces véritables couloirs maritimes, abrités des tempêtes de l océan, les navires de mer, portés par la marée, pouvaient s avancer rapidement et parfois très loin à l intérieur des terres.
L Aquitaine, par exemple, disposait de trois grands estuaires, celui de la Gironde et de la Garonne, long de km, de la Loire, d environ 60 km et celui de la Charente de 50 km. Les rias des Asturies, de la Galice et de l Armorique sont en général plus courtes, mais leur profondeur est souvent supérieure. Les ports de l Atlantique L Aquitaine disposait d un assez grand nombre de ports de mer, répartis assez régulièrement sur toute sa façade atlantique: Ces quatre ports principaux de l Aquitaine se sont tous développés à l extrémité de ces longs estuaires, que pouvaient atteindre les bateaux de mer et où commençait la navigation fluviale.
Sur la Loire, se trouvaient, face à face, Nantes et Rézé. Provost , 29 et. Rézé, le Ratiaton de Ptolémée, était le Port des Pictons, une vaste agglomération qui a connu un essor rapide à partir de l époque augustéenne: Provost , 29 et Sur la Gironde, se trouvaient Barzan et Bordeaux.
Barzan, très vaste vicus installé sur la rive gauche de l estuaire, était probablement le Portus Santonum. Relié à Saintes par une bonne route, il assurait un important trafic entre le chef-lieu de la cité des Santons et Bordeaux et vers tout le bassin de la Garonne. Si le port n a pas encore été localisé avec certitude, de grands entrepôts ont été reconnus en prospection aérienne et leur fouille vient de commencer. Burdigala était la première cité marchande du Golfe de Gascogne.
Son rayonnement commercial, conféré par une exceptionnelle situation géographique, est attesté par une abondante documentation littéraire, épigraphique et archéologique. Son port est encore mal connu. Pendant très longtemps il n a été question que de celui du Bas-Empire, situé au centre du castrum et que décrivent avec précision Ausone Lettres, XIII, et Paulin de Pella Poèmes d action de grâce, Aujourd hui, grâce aux fouilles récentes, on commence à se rendre compte que celui du Haut-Empire était plus vaste: A côté de ces grands ports, existaient, tout le long de la côte d Aquitaine, de nombreux autres établissements portuaires, plus ou moins bien équipés et plus.
Les différents moyens de transport de l Aquitaine gallo-romaine. A leur propos, nous manquons presque toujours de données précises, car ils n ont pas fait l objet de véritables recherches. Aussi notre liste est-elle probablement incomplète et, pour ceux que nous mentionnons, les informations sont à la fois incertaines et lacunaires.
Sur le territoire de la cité des Pictons, sont localisés les sites portuaires de Prigny aux Moutiers Provost , , de Nallier Provost et al. Saintes, capitale de l Aquitaine sous le Haut- Empire, avait assurément un port actif, même si on n en a encore jamais rencontré de vestiges Maurin , La Charente est, en effet, remontée par la marée jusqu aux abords de la ville et d assez gros bateaux, comme le caboteur de Port-Berteau II présenté plus haut p.
Les deux rives du fleuve, en aval et en amont du grand pont de la voie de Lyon, devaient être plus ou moins bien aménagées, soit simplement renforcées par des palissades de pieux, soit dotées de véritables quais.
Au sud de la Charente, l estuaire de la Seudre offrait un excellent abri naturel et devait assurément disposer de mouillages équipés d embarcadères. Ensuite, outre les grands ports de Barzan et de Bordeaux, l ensemble du très long estuaire de la Gironde, de la Garonne inférieure et de la basse Dordogne disposait de nombreux établissements portuaires, qui sont également mal connus, par manque de recherches archéologiques, bien que plusieurs soient mentionnés par des sources littéraires assez précises.
De l océan vers l intérieur, on peut citer successivement Dumnotonum, la villa de Théon, l ami d Ausone, qui se trouvait à proximité de la Pointe de Grave et devait posséder un embarcadère.
Puis, sur la même rive de l estuaire, mais un peu à l écart de celle-ci, l agglomération de Brion, à Saint-Germain-d Esteuil, probablement le Noviomagus de Ptolémée qui occupait une dizaine d hectares et dont une partie des édifices a été exhumée, mais pas le port qui se trouve vraisemblablement un peu au nord, peut-être au bord d un. Plus loin, sur le plateau de Blaye, se dressait Blavia Landais , avec son port en contrebas où, en venant de Saintes par la grande route, on s embarquait pour gagner commodément Bordeaux Ausone, Lettres, X, ; une garnison des milites Garronensium, préposés à la défense du littoral Notice de Dignités, XXVII y était stationnée à la fin du IV e siècle.
Au-delà de Bordeaux, se trouvaient encore plusieurs autres ports qui profitaient aussi de la marée et que mentionnent des sources anciennes, en particulier Condate sur la Dordogne, identifié avec Condat, faubourg de Libourne Ausone, Lettres, V, 32 et Alingo, l actuelle Langon Sidoine Apollinaire, Lettres, VIII, Au sud de la Gironde, la côte rectiligne du Médoc et des Landes est aujourd hui peu propice à l installation d établissements portuaires, à l exception du Bassin d Arcachon.
Mais il n en était sans doute pas ainsi à l époque romaine puisque les géographes considèrent que le cordon de dunes n était pas encore entièrement constitué sur l ensemble du littoral: Aussi de petits ports ou de simples mouillages pouvaient se trouver non loin de l embouchure de ces petits cours d eau et servir d abri aux bateaux qui y accédaient en utilisant les courants de marée pour l entrée et la sortie.
Un seul de ces petits établissements portuaires de la côte landaise a été partiellement reconnu, celui de l antique Losa, qui se trouve aujourd hui sous les eaux du lac de Sanguinet et était installé sur l ancien lit de la Gourgue Boyrie-Fenié ,. Ensuite, la localisation sur la Leyre du port de Lamothe- Biganos, le chef-lieu de la cité des Boiens, paraît aussi fort probable, puisque la rivière passe à m de l agglomération antique Sion , Pour la localisation des autres établissement portuaires possibles, il paraît logique de proposer des situations similaires, sur les anciens estuaires des petites rivières: Enfin, sur la côte rocheuse du Pays Basque, les abris naturels redeviennent nombreux et au moins deux ports peuvent y être situés.
Un devait assurément se trouver à Bayonne, l antique Lapurdum, agglomération importante surtout au Bas-Empire, qui s étendait sur la rive gauche de l estuaire de la Nive; il est généralement situé à l est du rempart, près de sa Porte Orientale Fabre , L autre à Guéthary, où il fallait au moins un port de pêche pour approvisionner la conserverie de poisson qui fonctionnait dès la première moitié du I er siècle ap. Tobie et Chansac C est, en effet, par l intermédiaire d une très active batellerie intérieure qu ils approvisionnaient une grande partie des régions de l Aquitaine en marchandises étrangères et recevaient de nombreux produits de la province qu ils exportaient ensuite vers tous les pays de l Atlantique.
Cette navigation intérieure était particulièrement favorisée par l excellent réseau hydrographique des bassins de la Loire et de la Garonne: C est exactement ce qu indique Strabon pour l ensemble de la Gaule Géographie, 4,1 2: Enfin, une nouvelle preuve archéologique du très grand intérêt que portaient les Gallo-Romains aux transports par eau vient d être apportée par la découverte du petit canal de Tendu Indre , qui servait à évacuer les blocs extraits d une carrière et qui étaient.
Ce canal, long d une centaine de mètres, large de 1,80 m et profond de 1 m et qui était bordé par un chemin de halage, a été creusé entre la carrière et une petite rivière, la Bouzane, affluent de la Creuse. En outre, des restes d un quai ont été mis au jour en bordure de celle-ci, à l endroit où le canal la rejoint Pichon Le réseau fluvial du bassin de la Garonne S il est impossible de présenter ici l ensemble des rivières navigables de l Aquitaine, dont la fig.
Le bassin hydrographique de la Garonne s étend sur km 2 environ. Il est constitué, en premier lieu, par le grand fleuve au débit important débit moyen annuel près d Agen: Son cours inférieur était remonté par la marée jusqu à La Réole, soit environ km, chiffre inférieur à celui de lieues, donné par l Itinéraire de Bordeaux à Jérusalem, qu il faut vraisemblablement corriger en milles. En amont de Toulouse, on doit distinguer la Garonne du territoire des Convènes, empruntée seulement par des radeaux une partie de l année, notamment pour transporter les marbres de Saint- Béat, et la Garonne de la cité des Tolosates, qui était assurément utilisée dans l Antiquité par une active batellerie, mais surtout de l amont vers l aval, en raison de la force du courant Sillières ,.
La plupart des affluents de la Garonne disposaient aussi d une batellerie active. Sur les plus 3 En complément de cette rapide étude, on pourra consulter l excellent travail universitaire de L.
Védrine, présenté en et resté inédit; un exemplaire de ce Diplôme d Études Approfondies a été déposé au Service Régional de l Archéologie d Aquitaine.
Même si nous manquons presque totalement de vestiges de bateaux de rivière d époque romaine, on ne peut douter de l importance de cette navigation intérieure qui a perduré pendant toute l époque moderne jusqu au XIX e siècle avec ses grosses gabarres d une vingtaine de tonnes de port. Les cours d eau plus modestes, comme l Aveyron, l Agout, l Isle et la Vézère, affluents du Tarn et de la Dordogne, étaient certainement aussi sillonnés de barques qui devaient être nettement plus petites.
Les embarcations et les ports de la batellerie fluviale La plupart des vestiges archéologiques concernant la navigation intérieure à l époque romaine font presque totalement défaut. Non seulement les épaves de barques de rivières sont extrêmement rares, hormis pour les pirogues, mais aussi les restes d équipements portuaires. De grandes villes, chefs-lieux de cités antiques, comme Agen, Toulouse et Saint-Bertrand-de- Comminges, sur la Garonne, Orléans et Tours, sur la Loire, étaient assurément pourvues de quai et d entrepôts, mais on n en a pas encore trouvé le moindre vestige.
Il devait aussi exister des embarcadères dans d autres villes situées sur d autres cours d eau navigables de l Aquitaine, comme à Limoges sur la Vienne, à Argenton sur la Creuse, à Cahors sur le Lot, à Périgueux sur L Isle, à Lectoure sur le Gers, à Saintes et à Angoulême sur la Charente, à Dax sur l Adour ou à Poitiers sur le Clain. On soulignera seulement le cas très intéressant de Bourges, à la fois parce que c est, à notre connaissance, la seule grande ville d Aquitaine qui ait livré quelques restes d équipement portuaire fluvial et, surtout, parce que ceux-ci prouvent qu une très modeste rivière, l Auron, qui passe au sud de la ville et sur laquelle ils se trouvent, était utilisée par la bate-.
Ces vestiges, du I er siècle ap. Ce réseau de nombreux et très divers cours d eau navigables était évidemment emprunté par une batellerie constituée d embarcations très différentes, par leur tonnage et leur tirant d eau, mais aussi par leur mode de propulsion, la voile, la rame et le halage.
Très peu de barques de rivière ont été retrouvées en Aquitaine et aucune n a fait l objet d une véritable fouille, à l exception du caboteur fluvio-maritime de la Charente, déjà mentionné ci-dessus, p.
D autres découvertes furent le résultat de dragages, qui n apportèrent que quelques débris des embarcations et une partie de leur cargaison: Mentionnons aussi la barque à fond plat de Vichy, trouvée dans une gravière, qui n a pas donné lieu à une publication détaillée: Cette documentation archéologique est fort insuffisante pour apporter des informations sur le tonnage des barques de rivière de l Aquitaine.
Aussi, à ce sujet, peut-on seulement se fonder sur des comparaisons avec des embarcations d époques plus récentes. On connaît en effet parfaitement les gabarres du Tarn et de la Dordogne, ou encore, grâce aux travaux de G.
Caster et de J. Bernard, les couraux des marchands bordelais et des pastelliers toulousains qui naviguaient sur la Garonne aux XV e et XVI e siècles Caster , 76; Bernard ,: La forme et les dimensions de ces embarcations étaient tout à fait comparables à celles de certaines barques fluviales gallo-romaines.
Ces couraux de Toulouse et de Bordeaux paraissent, en particulier, quasi identiques aux chalands gallo-romains de la Haine, qui mesuraient environ 19 m de long pour 2,87 de large et 0,67 de hauteur de bordé, à la barque de Bevaix, de 19,40 m sur 2,90 m et 0,80 m, ou encore à celle d Yverdon qui atteignait 22 m, pour 3,30 m et 0,90 m Izarra ,.
En conséquence, nous proposons de voir dans le courau du XV e siècle une assez convenable représentation des grosses barques qui naviguaient sur la moyenne Garonne à l époque romaine. On a déjà insisté sur le tonnage des embarcations et leur très grande supériorité par rapport à la capacité de charge des chariots, aussi bien des navires de mer que des barques de rivières.
Mais il faut surtout songer au coût très nettement inférieur des transports par eau pour les marchandises de faible valeur comme le blé ou le vin, de l ordre de six à dix fois moins par la voie fluviale que par la route et de trente à quarante fois moins par la voie maritime.
Enfin, ne pas oublier la médiocrité de beaucoup de chemins. Les transports par voie de terre Toutefois les voies terrestres restaient indispensables. Aussi étaient-elles nombreuses, notamment en Aquitaine, comme le montre la carte de la fig. On n insistera pas ici sur le rôle des grandes voies romaines: Mais la route servait aussi au déplacement des personnes et à l acheminement des marchandises.
Parfois, elle était même le seul moyen de transport,. Le meilleur exemple est celui de la Voie d Aquitaine, qui reliait Narbonne à Toulouse: Ou encore, lorsque l utilisation de la voie d eau était impossible. C était le cas pour les relations entre les régions de la façade atlantique à la mauvaise saison, lorsqu il était trop dangereux de s aventurer sur l océan. Les Aquitains devaient alors emprunter des routes de direction méridienne, comme la grande voie Dax Bordeaux Saintes Poitiers Tours, qui était sans doute la plus fréquentée.
C était aussi le cas lorsque le courant des fleuves était trop fort et gênait considérablement la remontée des embarcations. Strabon Géographie, IV, 1, 14 nous l explique très clairement à propos du Rhône: C était probablement de cette façon que s effectuaient les transports dans la vallée de la Garonne entre Toulouse et Saint-Bertrand-de-Comminges, car le courant du fleuve y est souvent très fort: Enfin, les cours d eau étaient aussi inutilisables lorsque leurs eaux étaient trop basses.
C était assurément le cas de nombreuses petites rivières qui ne pouvaient porter des embarcations que quelques mois de l année. Mais également celui des grands fleuves, même de la Loire et de la Garonne sur la première partie de leur cours, où, certaines années, généralement en août et septembre, les maigres sont extrêmement prononcés. Pendant ces maigres estivaux, les communications s effectuaient nécessairement en chariot par les voies de terre.
En outre, celles-ci étaient préférées aux voies d eau pour les transports rapides. Ainsi les voyageurs utilisaient fréquemment des voitures légères, comme le cisium à deux roues, tiré par trois chevaux, qu utilise par exemple le Santon Axius Paulus Ausone, Lettres, VIII, 6.
De même, la route était préférée quand le danger de naufrage devait être évité à tout prix, en particulier pour l expédition des marchandises de grande valeur, qui pouvaient, d ailleurs, supporter un coût élevé du transport: Les différents moyens de transport entre Saintes et Bordeaux. Les indications d Ausone sont particulièrement précieuses.
Surtout celles qu apporte sa Lettre, X, , par laquelle il invite son ami Axius Paulus, rétheur à Saintes, à le rejoindre dans sa maison bordelaise du Pagus Novarus, remo aut rota, c est-à-dire soit par la voie d eau de l estuaire de la Gironde, soit par la voie terrestre: Mais aussi celle de sa Lettre, XI, , dans laquelle il indique qu il expédie du vin à Saintes par une charrette tirée par deux chevaux.
En effet, plusieurs itinéraires pouvaient être empruntés entre les deux villes. L un était uniquement terrestre, celui de la grande route mentionnée par l Itinéraire d Antonin et la Table de Peutinger, dont subsistent des vestiges et à laquelle appartiennent vraisemblablement quatre milliaires CIL, XVII, , , et Le second était entièrement une voie d eau, puisqu il comportait deux tronçons fluviaux, la basse Charente et la Gironde, et le trajet maritime intermédiaire entre les deux estuaires.
Quant au troisième, il était formé d un parcours terrestre, utilisant la route entre Saintes et le port de Barzan, et d une navigation sur l estuaire de la Gironde entre Bordeaux et Barzan. Cet exemple montre qu il existait un large éventail de moyens de transports et que ceux-ci étaient complémentaires.
Les simples voyageurs pouvaient choisir en fonction de leurs préoccupations, de leurs nécessités et aussi de la saison. Ils disposaient généralement d une route impériale avec ses mansiones et ses chevaux de poste. A la belle saison, ils pouvaient aussi, comme c est le cas entre Saintes et Bordeaux, préférer le transport par voie d eau pour son agrément. Avec le trajet Bordeaux Barzan Saintes, il illustre aussi qu un voyage s effectuait rarement en utilisant un seul moyen de transport. C est ce que montre aussi le récit d un voyage de Saint Colomban: Pour les marchands, le mode de transport dépendait surtout de la valeur des produits dont ils faisaient commerce.
Certaines marchandises de grande valeur étaient assurément expédiées par la route: Les autres, de faible valeur, principalement le bois, les pierres, le blé, le vin, n étaient expédiées au loin que par la voie d eau, afin de réduire au maximum la part du coût du transport dans leur prix de vente.
Mais quand elles devaient emprunter la voie maritime, leur transport ne pouvait s effectuer qu à la belle saison: Navires et gens de mer à Bordeaux vers. Carte archéologique de la Gaule. Un aspect de la géographie des transports dans la Narbonnaise rhodanienne: Le commerce du pastel et de l épicerie à Toulouse, Toulouse.
Le trésor de Garonne. Manuel d archéologie galloromaine, II 2. Hommes et fleuves en Gaule romaine. Ships of the port of London: Le Val de Loire dans l Antiquité. La faiblesses de l attelage antique: Des bateaux et des fleuves. Recherches sur l organisation du commerce maritime en Méditerranée sous l Empire romain.
Les communications entre Saintes et Bordeaux à l époque gallo-romaine, in Itinéraire de Saintes à Dougga. Les voies de communication de la cité de Toulouse, in Pailler, J. Les voies de communication de l Hispanie méridionale. Le bassin de la Garonne: Significant, among other things, were the introduction and consumption of oil and wine. Both could not be produced here, as neither vines nor olive trees could grow in the harsh climate. Any evidence for wine and oil, therefore, means that these must have been imported from warmer areas on the continent.
There are, of course, no remaining archaeological traces for the products themselves; but the distinct packaging and transport vessels are indirect proof of their existence. The round bodied amphorae of the type Dressel 20 and related forms, for example, are generally seen as typical containers of olive oil.
If the distribution of these amphorae in the western half of the Roman Empire is mapped, they are found throughout all areas of all western Provinces 1. The wide spread of these containers does enable conclusions on the eating and cooking customs in the Roman period. Attempting to recreate ancient trade routes, however, is another matter, in which they are of only marginal use.
Of more use in this respect is the study of Dressel type 30 amphorae, which were used for the transport of wine from Gaul. As early as Peacock mapped and interpreted the distribution of these vessels 2. It is interesting to note that these amphorae are found in a thin band from the river Rhone, along the Rhine, and all the way to Britain 3. Peacock s conclusion, which remains convincing, was that wine from Gaul was imported via the Rhine area.
Yet it cannot be identified for certain whether the Dressel 30 amphorae on the Rhine are evidence for a trade route, or for the consumption of wine from Gaul by the local population. Roman Pottery in Britain, 89 ff. The Rhine and the problems of Gaulish wine in Roman Britain, in: Roman shipping and trade: Britain and the Rhine provinces. CBA Research Report 24, 49 ff. Whichever way one tends to interpret this issue, one thing can be said for certain on the basis of these amphorae: There was trading of various goods between the continent and Britain in the Roman period.
The trading to Britain of goods produced on the continent was controlled by the negotiatores Britanniciani, as is known from several inscriptions. One of them is a dedicatory inscription from Cologne, an altar dedicated to Apollo by the freedman C.
On it, he calls himself a negotiator Britannicianus. The inscriptions reads Apollini, C aius Aurelius C aii l ibertus Verus, negotiator Britannicianus, moritex, d onum d edit.
L ocus d atus d ecreto d ecurionum. A second example is known from Bordeaux 5. In this case it is the tombstone of Lucius Solimarius Secundinus, a citizen of Trier: D is M anibus. L ucio Solimario Secundino, civi Trevero, neg otiator Britan niciano. Apart from these individual finds there are an entire group of traders with Britain, which were all found in the same region: Several shrines to the goddess Nehalennia, some partly sunk in the sea, were found here.
Unfortunately only one badly preserved inscription mentioning a negotiator Britannicianus was found near Domburg. Yet a whole series of altars dedicated to the goddess Nehalennia by negotiatores Britanniciani were found at a sanctuary that must have been located near the site of Colijnsplaat.
Judging from the inscriptions, the cult of Nehalennia was widely popular here around AD This indicates that Placidus came from the region of Rouen on the Seine in France. The origins of two further merchants are also known from dedicatory inscriptions to the goddess Nehalennia: In h onorem d omus d ivinae , deae Nehalenniae, G aius Gatullinius Secco, negotiator allecarius, cives Trever, pro se et suis v otum l ibens p osuit 7. The third individual whose home is known from these inscriptions also comes from Trier: M arcus Exgingius Agricola, cives Trever, negotiator salarius C oloniae C laudiae A rae A grippinensium v otum s olvit l ibens m erito 8.
Gaius Gatullinius Secco traded in fish-sauce, but Exgingius Agricola engaged in salt trade for the city of Cologne. In both cases it is not clear, whether they were involved in trade with Britain. In view of the findspot of the inscriptions, however, this is usually assumed. The trading area of Marcus Secundinius Silvanus, on the other hand, definitely included Britain. He, too, dedicated an altar to the goddess Nehalennia near Colijnsplaat.
The badly preserved inscription was read by Prof. Bogaers after its discovery: Deae Nehalenniae, ob merces recte conservatas M arcus Secund inius? Silvanus, negotiator cretariu[s] Britannicianu[s], v otum s olvit l ibens m erito 9.
A notable aspect of this inscription is the mentioning of the product he seems to have exported to Britain, he was a trader in pottery. There is another altar dedicated to the goddess Nehalennia by Marcus Secundinius Silvanus, presumably with the same text. It was found with the sanctuary of Nehalennia at Domburg Interestingly, it is the only dedicatory inscription from Domburg that was put up by a merchant. None of the other inscriptions from this site mention occupations.
It would appear that merchants preferred to use the sanctuary of Nehalennia at Colijnsplaat. The inscriptions of Marcus Secundinus Silvanus therefore show that in the Roman period pottery trade with Britain was in control of a special group of merchants, the negotiatores cretarii Britannniciani. Pottery is an especially useful tool for the study of trade routes. Naturally amphorae, too, are made from clay but they served a primary function as vessels for 6 Deae Nehalenniae catalogue of the exhibition in Middelburg 78 no Ibid.
The temple of Nehalennia at Domburg, 70, no. In this case the goods that were traded were the contents, not the vessels themselves. In the case of the pottery merchants, however, the vessels themselves were the object of trade. There are three kinds of pottery which might be traded by the negotiatores cretarii Britanniciani, because they were produced in the Gallo-Germanic area between the 2 nd and 4 th century AD and were found in Britain.
The distribution area in which moulded sigillata from Rheinzabern mainly is found consists of southern Germania Superior and the territories along the Danube. Yet some moulded sigillata from the workshops at this site are found on the lower Rhine and in Britain This is hardly surprising, as it is a direct consequence of the location of the production centre. But some vessels were brought to areas further afield, of which the ones in the lower Rhine area and the British Isles are of particular interest.
Finally the cooking ware of the Mayen ware was produced in Mayen in the Eifel region in Germany. Because of the quality of theses pots, they were traded over long distances, and are even found in Britain.
All three centres of production Rheinzabern, Trier and Mayen have one thing in common: The distribution of wares from Trier and Rheinzabern shows that transport of pottery did indeed take place primarily on rivers. While both wares are found in Britain and the lower Rhine region as well as on the middle Danube, one needs to take into account the density of finds.
As we are dealing with two entirely different products, a splitting of the market between two groups of merchants cannot have been the reason for this phenomenon. If we consider the position of the two production sites, however, it becomes apparent that they are situated to the north and south respectively of a 11 MEES, A. In modern times a clear way has been blasted through the rocks, and the course of the river has been adjusted in order for big river vessels to pass this particular stretch of river.
This typical distribution pattern, caused by a natural obstruction, shows clearly that products from the Rhine Mosel area were transported to the coast by ship along rivers, before they were finally brought to Britain.
Due to their depth under water, seaworthy transport vessels could not have been the sole vessels to carry out this task. It is rather more likely that the goods were transported to the coast on lighter river vessels with less draught.
Only once they reached the coast were they loaded onto larger vessels that were capable of making the Channel crossing. These are vessels with a flat bottom with much defined edges.
This almost rectangular form ensured that they did not sink too deep into the water. As both ends of the vessel rose upwards slightly, it was possible to run the ship up a bank to some extent a feature that would have eased loading and unloading considerably.
Whenever some cargo was found with the remains of these vessels, it consisted of either grain or building materials. Both types are goods that need not have been transported from the continent to the British Isles, as they were available in abundance there.
In the context of this information the cargoes make perfect sense. Grain was used for the supply of the soldiers, building materials especially stone and tile were essential for the building of forts.
Yet there is no straightforward and secure evidence that these vessels may have been used for civilian purposes. Model of the wreck Zwammerdam 2 as an example of a Prahm This means that, for any study of civilian shipping on rivers we have to rely solely on Roman ship representations. In any study of Roman ship iconography in a civilian context, completely new types of ship appear.
At the same time a large range of ship types emerges His tombstone, now in the Landesmuseum Mainz, was found at Mainz- Weisenau and shows Blussus and his family on the front. The jewellery of his wife and the purse in his hand are indicators of his family s wealth. The back of the stone shows the reason for his prosperity it appears that he owned a ship for transporting goods along the Rhine fig.
The rising ends of his vessel, especially the stern, are characteristic features. A rudder at the stern was used for steering. To assist with the steering, another oar is being operated by a man in the bow.
The ship was propelled by oars indicated here by two oarsmen in the stern, sitting just in front of the helmsman. The short mast further shows that the ship could have been towed. Unfortunately, it is not possible to identify the cargo for certain, even though it appears to consist of boxes.
The proportions make it clear that Blussus ship must have been a rather small vessel. There would hardly have been space for more than the four crew members once some cargo was stowed between the mast and the rudder and the propulsion oars. The high stern of Blussus vessels from Mainz forms the connection to a representation of a ship from Cologne 14, which unfortunately is incomplete fig. At least it shows that the ship on the tombstone of Blussus is not a creation of some stonemason s imagination, but a representation of an existing ship type.
In any case it is difficult to believe that Blussus or his family would have accepted a representation of his vessel that did not bear relation to the actual ship.
Relief of a part of a ship from Cologne The three vessels depicted on the base of the Tiber also seem to have had flat bottoms. This sculpture is today kept in the Louvre. Their association with the personified river Tiber makes it natural to interpret these vessels as typical Tiber ships, used to transport goods from Portus to Rome.
The Tiber vessels would have been significantly longer than Blussus vessel, and the sides, seen in comparison to the overall length, are much lower fig. In this respect the Tiber vessels bear more resemblance to the heavy bulk carriers of type Zwammerdam. These vessels, however, are very different indeed.
While the steep but not very high stern may bear some resemblance to the Zwammerdam vessels, the bow is utterly different. It is curved upwards, a feature common to all three vessels on the relief. On one we can further see a mast used for towing.
Model of a small cargo boat from the Tiber statue in the Louvre A ship representation from Jünkerath in Germany, now in the Rheinisches Landesmuseum Trier, is somewhat similar, yet considerably easier to interpret fig.
While the ship itself is not represented on this fragment, the sail is clearly visible. It is easy to discern the crosswise spars which strengthen the sail. This solves the problem posed by the sail of the Bad Kreuznach representation. This too, must have been a sail supported with spars. This type of sail is much easier to operate by a small crew. The curving bow of the Tiber vessels is reminiscent of a vessel found on a mosaic in the Roman villa of Bad Kreuznach in Germany fig.
But the shape of the bow is the only common element of the vessels indeed; in all other respects the vessel from Bad Kreuznach looks entirely different.
This vessel does not have a flat bottom, but is of a rounded shape. The cargo consists of amphorae. The main method of propulsion seems to have been the sail - one can see it has become loose and the crew is busy attempting to draw it back in. This sail merits further attention. The waved edges of the sail could not flap like this, even in the heaviest storm.
As the rest of the image is of convincing accuracy, there must be a specific reason for this design. Relief from Jünkerath Typical transport vessels in the interior appear to have been canoe-shaped vessels.
These are found most frequently on relevant Roman representations. One of them, loaded with barrels, is to be seen on a relief in the museum at Avignon fig. The vessel is being towed from the bank. The ropes are tied to the towing mast. The helmsman in the stern is obviously attempting to keep the craft on course by steering against the direction of tow. Even though men, vessel and cargo are by no means displayed with accurate proportions in this depiction, it is still clear that we are dealing with a small vessel.
The cargo ship on the mosaic of Bad Kreuznach and the ship model. The Altar is now kept in the Rijksmuseum in Leiden fig. In this case the cargo also consists of barrels, which appear to be stacked two high. They fill the ship almost completely. There is only a little space for the helmsman, steering the vessel from the stern with a rudder, just as we observed on the fragment of Cologne and Blussus ship.
One oarsman can be identified in the bow. Again, the image suggests a rather small craft with few crew members. The canoe on the relief from Avignon and the model The canoe-like vessel on the column in Igel, a small site near Trier, seems to have been somewhat longer fig. It is found on the base of a large monument, the tomb of a cloth-trader.
The image shows his goods being transported. This vessel is also being towed by two people. Just as in the case of the Avignon ship, the helmsman is shown using his rudder to steer against the direction of tow.
In this case, too, there appears to have been virtually no space for anything but cargo and the three crew members. The canoe on an altar for the goddess Nehalennia and the model On the basis of these representations of Roman river craft that belong to a civilian context, we can therefore reach three conclusions: There is a wide variety of ship types, reaching from flat-bottomed vessels all the way to canoe-like boats. The canoe on the Igel column and the model 15 Deae Nehalenniae catalogue of the exhibition in Middelburg 77 no.
None of these vessels would have been able to sail the open sea. The English Channel could therefore not have been crossed in boats like these. The representations of ships therefore support the earlier thesis that goods produced in the interior i.
Only upon reaching the coast were the goods transferred into larger, seaworthy merchant vessels before making the crossing to Britain. Further proof of this thesis is found amongst the votive altars to the goddess Nehalennia. A typical image, of which there are several examples, shows the goddess putting one foot onto a ship. As opposed to the smaller craft we know from the inland, this vessel appears larger, and indeed seaworthy.
Original remnants of such vessels that moved cargoes to and from Britain have survived until modern times. They are big ships with a deck to protect the cargo and a solid steering system. As we can reconstruct the route of the cargo from the Rhine Mosel area to Britain, we have to ask ourselves what kind of organisational link existed between the men trading and those transporting the cargoes.
From inscriptions in Gaul we know big corporations of navicularii and nautae, who were responsible for the transport over sea or on the rivers Rhône and Saône. Sometimes, the patroni of theses corporations had been rich merchants, which shows a close connection between the ship owners and the traders Following this observation, it does not seem impossible that the negotiatores Britanniciani, too, worked together with special corporations of ship owners.
In Germania inferior and superior inscriptions of such corporations are missing. There is only one inscription of a nauta, who seems to be involved in sea trade. He set up an altar to the goddess Nehalennia with the typical depiction of a sea going ship But we do not know whether he was part of a corporation of ship owners. Amongst all depictions of river craft we noted not only that they were small, but also that they appear to have been manned with very small crews.
Just this method of using a crew of only few suggests that we are dealing with small transport firms with only one ship, and only a couple of hired hands. At the moment it is not clearly discernible whether those ship owners sailed at their own expense, as freelance, so to speak, or whether they were bound to certain merchants by contracts.
Gorbea, dentro del citado Proyecto, para la realización de su Tesis Doctoral. Este conocimiento se ve sin duda favorecido por la implantación en la zona de elementos típicamente romanos, como es la estructuración de su territorio en civitates.
Es muy frecuente ver que en Hispania, por ejemplo, se establece un mapa étnico que corresponde a la etapa de la pax Augusta que se suele incluso completar y rellenar con los datos ofrecidos por autores posteriores, principalmente Plinio y Ptolomeo 1. Bien es cierto que en ocasiones resulta difícil conciliar la información proporcionada por las diversas fuentes, varias de ellas de épocas muy diferentes.
En este sentido hay un hecho claro: Como acertadamente apuntan P. Al historiador le toca delimitar lo que constituye una realidad anterior, el resultado de la presencia y presión militar romana, o la aplicación de paradigmas civilizadores al uso para reinventar la romanización El conocimiento de los pueblos del golfo de Bizkaia por los romanos: No es posible conocer a estos pueblos desde una interpretación literal de los textos de los autores antiguos, ya que esto puede conducir a graves errores.
El historiador no debe limitarse a repetir la información que trasmiten las fuentes literarias, sino que tiene que comprobar su veracidad e interpretarla 3. Un estudio completo y detallado, así como una interpretación relativamente novedosa puede verse en la Tesis Doctoral que M.
Este autor no visitó personalmente la Península por lo que muchos de sus datos proceden de fuentes anteriores, principalmente las obras de Posidonio, Asclepíades y Artemidoro. Se puede afirmar que en gran medida la descripción que de Hispania hace Estrabón no corresponde a su tiempo época de Augusto y Tiberio , sino a una etapa anterior a la conquista, es la Iberia que Posidonio conoció hacia el a.
L Van der Vliet, , Su Chorografia fue redactada en tiempos de Claudio, pero también utiliza fuentes anteriores con datos sobre todo de M. Vipsanio Agripa y M. Por entre ellos y los salenos, el Saunio. Por entre los avariginos autrigones? La traducción de éste y el resto de textos de Plinio es de A. Pero la realidad que aparece en su obra no es la de su tiempo, sino la de una etapa anterior, ya que muchas de las referencias son tomadas de Agripa y Varrón.
A los autrigones atribuye diez civitates, entre ellas Tritium y Virovesca 7. The Thomson collection of ship models features pieces from the Napoleonic era to the 19th century, and a decorative arts collection includes more than objects of international significance, including the 12th-century Malmesbury Chasse.
Aside from its routine function, Treptow Crematorium has become an object of study for students and contemporary architecture enthusiasts from all over the world. More fascinating than the building itself is the inner space, the high hall, which has been compared to Stonehenge, Carnac or the Mosque at Cordoba.
Twenty-nine concrete supports, smooth as marble, rise from the ground like trees at irregular intervals, and give structure to the rectangular Hall of the Dead. Here their tops have circular crowns of daylight where they break through the ceiling, and a mirror-like circular pool lies in the centre of this vast grove of pillars. The geometrical clarity and the control of material and light in the crematorium is breathtaking.
I like the slight similarities between this picture and my previous upload. Compare the perspective, the light in the back and the wet part leading into the image. You may ask yourself why didn't I shoot this in the daytime, I asked myself this question at least.
The answer is, I wouldn't be able to achieve the soft tones on the walls and the overall dimmed contrasts. Shadows and light would be much harder in the daytime compared to the early evening here in the picture. Actually this is a very long exposure: The design went through three versions between and By comparison, the new Chancellery building is ten times the size of the White House. The square meter two-room flat has thus far only been occupied by Gerhard Schröder; current Chancellor Angela Merkel prefers to live in her private apartment in Berlin.
Ein weiterer Eingang befindet sich in der Paul-Löbe-Allee. Im Jahr wurde ein städtebaulicher Ideenwettbewerb für das Spreebogenareal in Berlin ausgelobt.
Den Grundstein für das neue Bundestagsgebäude legte am April die damalige Bundestagspräsidentin Rita Süssmuth am östlichen Spreebogen.
Das Paul-Löbe-Haus wurde eröffnet. My heart goes back with the setting sun — My heart, my heart is in the Mountains! Hamilton Hatter seizes opportunities to learn and overcome. At one college he builds young minds and even its buildings -. But first he had to overcome. The children were of both sexes, ranging from three to twenty years of age, neatly and comfortably clad, well fed, healthy, and cheerful,.
Northern journalist John Trowbridge came to Charlestown in the early summer of , a war-worn town. At the end of a long hour's ride, we arrived at Charles Town, chiefly of interest to me as the place of John Brown's martyrdom. We alighted from the train on the edge of boundless unfenced fields, into whose melancholy solitudes the desolate streets emptied themselves - rivers to that ocean of weeds. The town resembled to my eye some unprotected female sitting,.
On the steps of a boarding house I found an acquaintance whose countenance gleamed with pleasure. While Jefferson County, West Virginia is still small, the sentiment toward secession throughout the County before the Civil War varied widely, with the hotbed of secessionist sentiment in the area around Charlestown and adjacent large farms.
We have for breakfast salt-fish, fried potatoes and treason. Fried potatoes, treason, and salt-fish for dinner. At supper, the fare is slightly varied, and we have treason, salt-fish potatoes, and a little more treason. Sometimes I venture to answer her, when she flies at me, figuratively speaking, like a cat. The women are not the only out-spoken Rebels, although they are the worst.
Looked at from the outside, the fire seems quenched. But just peep under the blanket and there it is, all alive and eating, eating in. The wet blanket is the present government policy; and every act of conciliation shown the Rebels is just letting in so much air to feed the fire. December, - Anne S.
Dudley, was one of several young women coming from Maine borne by their Free Will Baptist faith to start Mission Schools in places like Charlestown. Many had gone during the war. Dudley, also a graduate of Maine Seminary in ,. The spirit that hung John Brown still lives, and the people are strongly opposed to schools for the Freedman there, as well as here.
And for a lady of the town to associate with such a woman such as Miss Dudley from elsewhere - worse still from a Yankee state - would be a social suicide in Charlestown.
Rubicon once passed, there could be no return to friends and society, no more than over the hills of caste in India, as public sentiment was then. First organized in July, , - a month after Trowbridge's visit -. Overwhelmed by work that prompted the Home Mission Society to replace the ground-breaking Dudley with two teachers instead of one in the spring of , Dudley had written that February:. In summer the attendance is reduced one-half owing to the necessity of the older pupils going on to service,.
The children were of both sexes, neatly and comfortably clad, well fed, healthy, and cheerful, with an uncommon array of agreeable and intelligent countenances peering over the tops of the desks. They were also remarkably docile, orderly, and well mannered,. While the majority of the pupils have come into existence since the Emancipation Proclamation, there is still a number older than that event, and some whose recollections antedate the great war.
Yet in their career of schooling they have all started even. It may also be observed that the great scholars are usually outstripped by the little ones, which only goes to confirm the generally received opinion that young plants are more easily transplanted and trained than older ones more absolutely true in mind and morals than in horticulture.
All the colored people manifested the greatest kindness towards us. I shall never forget the oft repeated prayer: Front and fight her battles and bring her safe home to Glory, if you please Jesus. The focus shifted to having a permanent school building. State law, due to amendments in , segregated students by race. State law by , also required moving the task of providing education to African Americans. The school under new management opened in time for the fall session in It led to a decision by Unionist-leaning Judge Ephraim B.
Hall in the Tenth District of the circuit court reaffirming the right to an education for African Americans in that circuit. The ruling was then circulated and became becoming a de facto policy throughout the state. Appearances at Charlestown indicate as much. Wrote Strother how the School Board finally came around, tossing their low expectations: The County Commission of Examiners report most favorably of the general intelligence exhibited by the colored pupils, and of their progress in all the elementary branches of common-school education.
With generous, community-minded support from American Public University System. The sentiments in this production do not in any way reflect modern-day policies of APUS. Volume 49 Issue September, This is a fictional story showing how the last vestiges of the republic, your personal wealth and gold could disappear in 24 hours. At the point where the illusion becomes too expensive to maintain, they will just take down the scenery, they will pull back the curtains, they will move the tables and chairs out of the way and you will see the brick wall at the back of the theater.
Several weeks ago, Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano announced Obama's sudden executive order favoring illegal aliens. This was just one of many presidential executive orders and actually not a big deal but this tool will likely be the legal mechanism used to financially lock down America similar to the way a warden limits privileges and movement in a prison complex. Executive orders, unless they are challenged, can allow a president to rule by decree. This is basically what our once great republic has been reduced to.
Many presidents have used the power of presidential executive orders but among the most harmful were Franklin Roosevelt's Executive Order signed on April 5, that authorized the confiscation of private gold and Executive Order imprisoning , Japanese Americans in "War Relocation Camps.
Of course, you will not read much about this in the history books. This would be an American version of the Reichstag fire event that allowed Hitler and the Nazis to rule Germany by emergency decree.
The spark could be a European bank run, sovereign debt collapse or capital controls contagion crossing the Atlantic and reaching the already bankrupt United States. It could be a real military or oil crisis in the Middle East, terrorist attack, Israeli military attack or contrived false flag operation designed to provide the justification for a presidential executive order that could take the rest of your net worth over the course of a single night.
The few remnants of the original republic of our Founding Fathers along with our remaining wealth and liberties could easily be destroyed over 24 hours by a pre-planned presidential executive order during a future real or contrived crisis. Presidential elections today are meaningless reminders of an earlier time when it mattered which party or presidential candidate won an election.
It could happen just as easily under Romney as Obama. I've tried to show how this kind of crisis could be manufactured or promoted to create the public justification and support for these broad actions, although I believe the financial actions alone may be all that is really necessary. After all, a full-blown police state really isn't a good way to run a country and would be counter productive when all they really want are your assets.
My goal is to explore the possible political, financial and economic consequences of the next crisis or attack and prepare a worst-case scenario Presidential Executive Order response. Remember, all governments with a couple of exceptions are already bankrupt thanks to the sovereign debt conspiracy.
The actual solution is sovereign debt repudiation but this would threaten the major banks, their central banking accomplices and their political partners-in-crime. Therefore, "austerity" is a pleasant term to frame dramatic tax increases and cuts in government services and programs and this is the near-term solution combined with unimaginable money creation by the central banks.
However, the time is coming soon when the fiat money creation must stop or else the world will erupt into severe hyperinflation again threatening those institutions and political structures that created the economic downturn "depression" now ravaging and destroying the world economy. They now require a dramatic excuse, an emergency so frightening as to motivate Americans into voluntarily giving up their wealth and remaining freedoms to maintain the system a little longer while the financial and political elites search for a way out to escape blame and the consequences of their actions.
I fear their solution will become known in a future history, assuming eventually liberty forces prevail, as "The Final Presidential Executive Order. Recently we have been reading about how Spain is basically outlawing cash and the nation of Hungary forced private retirement funds into a government plan. Domestically we read how drones will be patrolling American skies, continued TSA outrages, proposed Internet controls, passports being confiscated for back taxes, the government war against gold, threats of public protests and the death of personal and financial privacy.
The march toward a police state controls at home continues but the American people need to be warned how this may not continue as a step-by-step process. A real or contrived crisis could create an overnight clampdown by Presidential Executive Order rendering all countermeasures by US citizens too late to protect their wealth, liberties, investment liquidity or gold investments dead in the water.
I suggest a real or contrived financial, military or terrorism emergency could quickly turn the United States into a presidential dictatorship overnight with little opportunity for recourse by private citizens or Congress. This is an extreme example of what could happen should the need arise.
American citizens would quickly become wards and serfs of the federal government without recourse to protect their property, wealth or right to practice their religion, school their children or travel outside the country. Read this short story and see how easy it would be for a presidential executive order to immediately wipe away all pretexts of civil liberties, financial security, property rights, the Bill of Rights and Constitutional protections all in the name of protecting the nation.
But like everything else in the United States today, these formerly inflated concerns are now real threats to your liberty and wealth. With the power of Executive Orders, the president can basically rule the nation by executive decree in times of severe emergency — defined by the executive branch alone — with the full force of law.
These actions are difficult to prohibit legally because the powers of a president are quite broadly defined by the Constitution. According to our reading of the Constitution, it does not define or limit the power of the president to rule by executive order, except in the larger context of the Constitution in general.
At noon during a normal lunch hour, a number of relatively small conventional explosive blasts hit major metropolitan areas in the United States. A telephone call prior to the blast announced solidarity with the original anarchist attack against the very same building back on September 16, The news was filled with experts blaming Iranian terrorists and modern-day anti-Washington anarcho-capitalist elements who hated the American government.
The Wall Street subway station was also bombed, resulting in a number of casualties. In Salt Lake City a briefcase filled with explosives was left in a skyscraper elevator housing the Goldman Sachs offices and detonated when the building was full of office workers preparing to go out for lunch. Although the death toll was minimal, this resulted in an outpouring of condolences and support for the firm and a visit from the President a couple of days later to show solidarity with the firm and its capitalistic activities.
Suburban malls in Minneapolis and San Francisco, as well as a casino in Las Vegas were also damaged by small bombs, leaving almost people dead and wounded. Finally, a small explosion from within a safe deposit box in the vault of the Bank of America building in Charlotte went off. Although no one was injured in this instance, other deposit boxes and their private contents were consumed in the small explosion.
Moreover, additional small bombs went off in safe deposit boxes in two other banks, in Atlanta and Seattle, creating a sense of panic and disarray for bank customers wondering if their bank would be next.
A broad sense of public terror was increasing by the minute, making the situation and financial costs much worse. Subways, planes and high-rise building elevators were almost empty as the public feared additional attacks. Malls and shopping centers, casinos, banks and major hotels were strangely quiet as people stayed away.
The American economy was shutting down and grinding to a halt. Most were young radical Islamists who had recently graduated from Madrasah style Islamic schools in the targeted cities and several were home schooled. There also appeared to be direct financial links between some domestic rightwing extremists, the terrorists, Hezbollah and, of course, Iran.
The President reported that a tip from Israeli intelligence had allowed the government to react quickly and forestall a planned second wave of attacks. He thanked them for their efforts. More news emerged as files found on the personal computers of the deceased and detained alleged terrorists clearly showed that the suspects had financed their operation with funds wired from outside the country and through large amounts of cash currency secretly kept in bank safe deposit boxes.
The President then appealed to the public for their support and highlighted the need for them to stay calm during the emergency.
He announced that effective noon EST the next day, September 12, , a Presidential Executive Order would be released in response to the attack that would safeguard the American public and protect our nation from another attack such as this. He affirmed that this kind of unwarranted attack against innocent civilians and our financial interests would never happen again.
He insisted that all the perpetrators, both domestic and foreign, as well as any conspiring organizations or governments would be swiftly brought to justice. Finally, he placed the US armed forces on high alert and ordered a carrier task force, which happened to be standing by off the coast of Iran near the Straits of Hormuz, to prepare for action. In addition, he called for unity among the American people and warned politicians and all facets of the media about their duty to understand that America was now in a state of war with the terrorists.
Any and all anti-American activities and other actions that might divide the American people, deny the seriousness of or question the coming emergency actions, especially the following day's Presidential Executive Order, would be prohibited for the duration of the terrorism emergency. One reporter from an alternative Internet news site sitting in the audience loudly questioned whether the President would ask Congress to issue a Declaration of War.
She was immediately escorted from the press conference by the Secret Service with most of the press core booing her suggestion. By the authority vested in me as President in the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to strengthen the efforts of the Department of Homeland Security, as well as all Federal, State and local agencies, executive order is hereby ordered as follows:.
Due to prohibitions against ethnic and racial profiling, this emergency Presidential Executive Order will cover all Americans equally without regard to religious, ethnic, racial or political views and beliefs. To this end, we immediately implement the following temporary emergency actions, federal legislation, regulations and requirements to become effective at Therefore, all bank and private safe deposit boxes are hereby sealed and closed for 90 days or longer until a complete inventory of every box in the nation is completed by approved bank personnel and appropriate government agencies, to include but not limited to the Internal Revenue Service, the FBI and Homeland Security.
All the contents are to be reviewed and an inventory prepared for the box owner of record and such approved bank or government personnel as the Department of Homeland Security deems as appropriate. After the inventory is completed, all private records and legal documents may be retained and stored in the box, but the box holder may only utilize the same box in the future in conjunction with monitoring of contents by approved bank personnel.
The difference between cost and fair-market value will be immediately declared as income and taxed accordingly. Failure to show adequate records will also result in the immediate taxation and requirement of payment of income taxes on the deemed fair market value with a cost basis of zero. All private holdings of cash are to be surrendered and exchanged at your local bank for a "Terrorism Emergency Debit Card" within the next five 5 business days.
Any old currency held after the five 5 day period will not be redeemed and will not be considered legal tender by the United States. Cash hoarding or structuring in order to avoid any cash limits will be punished to the fullest extent of the law. All payments must be by debit or credit card and no cash payments will be permitted. This is a temporary closure but all commercial banks will remain open during the emergency in order to fulfill the safe deposit box and exchange of currency requirement mandated by this Presidential Executive Order.
All future bank withdrawals, deposits and debit and credit card purchases will be monitored and evaluated by the US Treasury for the protection of the citizens of the United States. Moreover, the government prohibits any protests over coming emergency actions like this Presidential Executive Order. Also forbidden is the encouragement of our enemies during this terrorism emergency. Further, all classes and schools are subject to monitoring and review by the Department and subject to unannounced visits at any time in order to stop the spread of Islamic propaganda and the radicalizing of the American Moslem population.
The registration and review will be equally applied on all public and private schools at the high school and college level. All children from the 1st to the 12th grade are required to immediately register and attend the public or private school of their choice.
No financial transactions, purchases or sales will be allowed without a valid "Lawful Citizen Transaction Card" in order to monitor immigration and the terrorist threat to the United States. To further protect our nation, starting in 60 days the public will be allowed to voluntarily request a safe and secure microchip placement in the forehead in lieu of the card, which can then be monitored at each required location by new equipment that will scan each citizen at point of purchase.
These chips will include important blood type and vital statistics information and will allow law enforcement to track at will the location of every lawful citizen in the United States in order to protect this nation. This action will curtail illegal immigration and discourage illegals and potential terrorists from being able to transact business in the United States. All services, ordinances and private ceremonies at religious institutions are subject to review and monitoring by appropriate Homeland Defense Department personnel.
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to strengthen the efforts of the Department of Homeland Security and all Federal, State and local agencies to help defend our nation it is hereby ordered as follows:.
The people cheered and waved American flags, the opposition fell silent and our young men and women waited for the day when their Registration Acknowledgments were replaced with the draft cards and notices for the ongoing war in the Middle East.
Accordingly, a long night of darkness fell over this former Republic and our remaining liberties. This extreme scenario is meant to illustrate what could happen here in the United States.
Still, the PC prohibitions on ethnic profiling could result in these types of government actions in the event of a real or contrived Islamic extremist terrorist attack on the United States. Although we use a combination name of Obama and Romney in the example simply because we don't know who will be President at the time should this work of fiction happen, I foresee few real differences in the foreign or domestic policy of either party. May the Final Presidential Executive Order never take place and may the American people restore their control over an out-of-control government.
I fear the alternative of an Executive Order creating a financial lockdown over all of us that will continue until our private wealth is confiscated.
Quoting George Washington, "Government is not reason, it is not eloquence, it is force; like fire, a troublesome servant and a fearful master. Never for a moment should it be left to irresponsible action. See the accompanying blog entry here. Copyright, please do not use without written consent. If you would like to have use of one of my images for a publication, gallery,or otherwise please email info shutter I am glad to be home!
I was sent on business at the last minute to Charlotte, NC this past week. The most nervous part of the whole trip for me was flying Delta airlines. I am not a huge fan of Delta airlines but, they did manage to get me there and back in one piece and and they gave us a free meal since our flight out of Houston was delayed by 4 hours, so I really cannot complain. Also, I did manage to get some great pictures from the plane. This image being one of them. Tras unos años simbolizando el odio y la decadencia, actualmente el distrito que rodea al Reichstag se ha convertido en un espacio privilegiado de encuentro y modernidad.
La finalización del Distrito Gubernamental data apenas del año y ha querido ser el mejor representante del Berlín del siglo XXI. El proyecto, de Axel Shulter y Charlotte Frank, consiste en un espacio rectangular que atraviesa el requiebro del río Spree justo al norte del Reichstag.
Entre los edificios destacan la residencia oficial del canciller federal Bundeskanzleramt o la Biblioteca del Congreso. Realmente los edificios resultan espectaculares, la conjunción entre el río y el diseño es perfecta.
Un rincón imprescindible para los amantes de la arquitectura y un lugar muy agradable para pasear después de ver el Reichstag y la Puerta de Brandeburgo. Sometimes I wish my blog was not on the fashion feeds. This building to the west of the river Spree is part of the 'government ribbon'. It is connected to the Chancellery and together with the Marie-Elisabeth-Luders House on the opposite side of the Spree it forms a formal and functional whole. The building contains more than offices for the parliamentary deputies.
It's m long, m wide and 22m high. It has the form of a double comb with eight outer courtyards. The main entrance in the west is situated under a large imposing porch with four filigree columns. A large glass-roofed hall with glass-enclosed elevators and transparent staircases are in the middle of the block.
The building is named after the last parliamentary president, until , Paul Löbe. Occupying 12, square meters , square feet , it is also one of the largest government headquarters buildings in the world. By comparison, the new Chancellery building is eight times the size of the White House. The square meters two-room flat was only occupied by Gerhard Schröder.
Merkel uses her private apartment in Berlin. Because of its distinctive but controversial architecture, journalists, tourist guides and some locals refer to the buildings as Kohllosseum as a mix of collosseum and former chancellor Helmut Kohl under whom it was built , Bundeswaschmaschine federal laundry machine; because of the round-shaped windows and its cubic form.
The German Chancellery Bundeskanzleramt is a federal agency serving the executive office of the Chancellor, the head of the German federal government. The agency's primary function is to assist the Chancellor in coordinating the activities of the Federal Government. The current chief of the Chancellery is Minister Peter Altmaier. Bundeskanzleramt is also the name of the building in Berlin that houses the personal offices of the Chancellor and the Chancellery staff.
It is the largest government headquarters building in the world. After the war, Bonn became seat of the West German government and the Chancellery now known as the Bundeskanzleramt — Chancellor's Office moved into Palais Schaumburg until a new Chancellery building was completed in The new West German Chancellery building was a black structure completed in the International Style, in an unassuming example of modernism.
In the summer of , as part of the German government's move to Berlin, the Chancellery was temporarily housed in the former GDR State Council building Staatsratsgebäude as the new Chancellery building was not yet finished at the time. Occupying 12, square meters , square feet , it is also the largest government headquarters building in the world.
A semi official Chancellor apartment is located on the top floor of the building. Because of its distinctive but controversial architecture, journalists, tourist guides and some locals refer to the buildings as Kohllosseum as a mix of Colosseum and former chancellor Helmut Kohl under whom it was built , Bundeswaschmaschine federal laundry machine, because of the round-shaped windows and its cubic form , or Elefantenklo elephant loo.
Get here a large view! Den Grundstein für das neue Bundestagsgebäude, in dem sich vor allem Büros und Ausschussräume befinden, legte Rita Süssmuth am April am östlichen Spreebogen ein. Das neue Paul-Löbe-Haus wurde eröffnet. Der Neubau enthält Räume und Er dient vorrangig der Unterbringung von Funktionsbereichen, die für den reibungslosen Parlamentsbetrieb die Nähe zum Reichstagsgebäude erfordern.
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Erano le spie degli Imperi Centrali, come degli Alleati. Dovevano sabotare i carichi delle navi mercantili, raccogliere informazioni, ostacolare in ogni modo il nemico. Tra le loro mani scorrevano fiumi di denaro. E loro lo dispensavano con prodigalità per ogni dove. Tanto che tutti sapevano che non esisteva dirigente giù al porto , che non fosse sul libro paga di un qualche servizio segreto. Le aziende facevano soldi a palate, e in tutta la città scorreva la cornocupia dei profitti di guerra.
E radio Barcellona, neanche a dirlo la prima di tutta la Spagna , ne canta la leggenda. In essa coesistono infatti città diverse che si scontrano, che spesso si ignorano, ma che a volte vicendevolmente si plasmano. Fin da subito gli operai che vivono in città, hanno espresso una radicalità che li porta a vivere nella vita di ogni giorno una loro personale dimensione antiautoritaria, cosa che ha fatto presto di Barcellona la capitale degli anarchici, ammesso che essi ne possano avere una.
O al massimo , di essi ha la classica immagine che li vuole rannicchiati su se stessi, sempre pronti a scattare con furia, per poi finire inevitabilmente giustiziati. Gioia di vivere su tutte le facce, in tutte le vetrine , nelle banche, nei lombi. Vivono assieme alle loro famiglie in cinque o sei per stanza, in case prive di luce e di ventilazione.
Molti di loro muoiono per meningite, di influenza, di mal di gola, e vengono portati via in povere casse di legno di pino, dipinte di bianco. La città dove i bambini dei quartieri operai, quando si avvicina il giorno di uno dei tanti scioperi generali, fermano i passanti e chiedono loro: Ad essi si aggiungono i bambini che rappresentano circa il venti per cento della forza lavoro e le innumerevoli donne, che vengono come da copione , massicciamente impiegate nelle fabbriche tessili.
Una terra , che pare ormai rassegnata a vedere andar via le sue migliori energie. Tutto il resto degli abitanti è formato da braccianti. Gli altri che non sono stati scelti, possono pure tornarsene a casa, e riprovare il giorno appresso.
Per il resto del tempo, la disoccupazione è pressochè totale. La terra andalusa dà la redditività più bassa per ettaro di tutta l' Europa. Eppure al tempo dello storico romano Strabone e per tanti secoli successivi, essa era considerata il granaio del Mediterraneo.
C'è chi si affanna a dire che tutto questo è dovuto al fatto che le nuvole scaricano l'acqua che portano con sé in mezzo al mare, e dunque la povertà della terra andalusa , altro non sarebbe se non il risultato delle avverse condizioni metereologiche. Del resto , meno di ventimila 'terratenientes' , come il marchese di Penaranda che nemmeno cavalcando per ventiquattro ore di seguito riesce a sconfinare dalle sue terre, possiedono la metà della Spagna intera, con quei latifondi che sono la piaga dell' Estremadura, della Mancha e soprattutto dell' Andalusia e che anche risultano essere la prima causa del mancato sviluppo economico di tutta la nazione.
I 'Terratenientes' vivono di solito a Madrid o a Biarritz e si disinteressano completamente delle loro proprietà. Lasciano infatti amministrare le loro terre, da cui traggono ogni anno una o due pesetas ad ettaro, a un 'cacique' che vessa i contadini, sui quali esercita un potere pressochè totale. Lui occupa tutti i posti del potere locale, è al centro delle consorterie dei villaggi, corrompe e terrorizza con la forza del denaro e con quella della legge, tutti gli abitanti di un paese.
Ai 'braceros' e ai loro figli, è invece precluso tutto. Non possiedono terra, come dice una canzone , sempre cantata con commossa partecipazione, 'al bracciante spetta soltanto la terra in cui verrà sepolto', lavorano le proprietà dei signori e della chiesa che odiano con tutta l'anima, perché essa è chiesa dei ricchi e del privilegio, e ha tradito il suo originario messaggio di fratellanza e di difesa dei poveri e degli ultimi.
Nella memoria dei braccianti, è ancora forte la perdita delle terre di uso collettivo, avvenuta con la 'desamorticiacion' del , quando quelle terre comuni che comunque consentivano una precaria esistenza ai contadini dei 'pueblos' di Carmona, Puerto Real, Linares, Jerez e di mille altri villaggi, con il pretesto di annullare il debito dello stato, sono state vendute per un prezzo irrisorio, ai grandi proprietari terrieri e a un clero ignorante e corrotto. Che non sa né leggere né scrivere, che cacciato dai villaggi, va ad ingrossare l'armata dei mendicanti, i 'menesterosos', che come unica alternativa ha quella di emigrare, di farsi torero o diventare cantore nelle 'ferias'.
E' capace di odiare con eguale forza lo stato e il capitalismo, perché disumani e perché comportano alienazione. Gli sono popolari le leggende orali sui 'bandoleros', quegli uomini di coraggio che si sono ribellati alla sorte che altri hanno scelto per loro. Come ha fatto Diego Corrientes, squartato nella piazza del mercato di Siviglia, o José Chaves che 'rubava ai ricchi per dare ai poveri'.
Per lui liberalismo ha voluto dire soltanto smembramento delle terre comuni. Il contadino andaluso è portatore da generazioni di una cultura e di una tradizione municipalista e collettivista.
Odia le leggi dello stato perché scritte e dunque puramente tecniche, crede soltanto nella legge naturale che è radicata nel cuore degli uomini e dunque superiore come norma etica , a quelle stampate nei codici.
Che gli danno i primi rudimenti della scrittura e della lettura. Che gli parlano di dignità e di uguaglianza.